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Forensic Genetics and Genotyping

Authors
  • Vitoševic, Katarina
  • Todorovic, Danijela
  • Slovic, Zivana
  • Zivkovic-Zaric, Radica
  • Todorovic, Milos
Type
Published Article
Journal
Serbian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Publisher
Sciendo
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2019
Volume
20
Issue
2
Pages
75–86
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1515/sjecr-2016-0074
Source
De Gruyter
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Forensic genetics represents a combination of molecular and population genetics. Personal identification and kinship analysis (e.g. paternity testing) are the two main subjects of forensic DNA analysis. Biological specimens from which DNA is isolated are blood, semen, saliva, tissues, bones, teeth, hairs. Genotyping has become a basis in the characterization of forensic biological evidence. It is performed using a variety of genetic markers, which are divided into two large groups: bi-allelic (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNP) and multi-allelic polymorphisms (variable number of tandem repeats, VNTR and short tandem repeats, STR). This review describes the purpose of genetic markers in forensic investigation and their limitations. The STR loci are currently the most informative genetic markers for identity testing, but in cases without a suspect SNP can predict offender’s ancestry and phenotype traits such as skin, eyes and hair color. Nowadays, many countries worldwide have established forensic DNA databases based on autosomal short tandem repeats and other markers. In order for DNA profile database to be useful at a national or international level, it is essential to standardize genetic markers used in laboratories.

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