Introduction: To evaluate the use and awareness of radiation during URS among Belgian and Dutch urologists.Material and methods: An online questionnaire was send to all members of the Belgian and Dutch Association of Urology.Results: 170 urologists finished the complete questionnaire. 10% of the respondents are not familiar with the ALARA-principle. 29% starts with a KUB and 48% makes an XRPG at the beginning of the procedure. 85% uses fluoroscopy to place a wire or ureteral access sheet, 18% during stone treatment, 59% to screen for missed stones or calyces, 90% to place a JJ-stent or ureter-catheter and 23% to check for extravasation. 82% do not document radiation data. 51% does not wear a dosimeter during fluoroscopy. Almost all wear a lead apron during fluoroscopy, 47% uses additional thyroid shields and only 4% uses lead glasses. 88% intentionally reduces fluoroscopy time, 75% reduces the exposed area with a diaphragm, 72% brings the radiation source close to the patient and 44% uses pulsed fluoroscopy.Conclusion: There is a wide variety in the use and awareness of radiation during URS. To further reduce radiation and its negative effect for patients and medical staff, awareness about radiation safety should increase among urologists.