Telomeres are aging biomarkers, as they shorten while cells undergo mitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether psychiatric disorders marked by psychological distress lead to alterations to telomere length (TL), corroborating the hypothesis that mental disorders might have a deeper impact on our physiology and aging than it was previously thought. A systematic search of the literature using MeSH descriptors of psychological distress ("Traumatic Stress Disorder" or "Anxiety Disorder" or "depression") and telomere length ("cellular senescence", "oxidative stress" and "telomere") was conducted on PubMed, Cochrane Library and ScienceDirect databases. A total of 56 studies (113,699 patients) measured the TL from individuals diagnosed with anxiety, depression and posttraumatic disorders and compared them with those from healthy subjects. Overall, TL negatively associates with distress-related mental disorders. The possible underlying molecular mechanisms that underly psychiatric diseases to telomere shortening include oxidative stress, inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction linking. It is still unclear whether psychological distress is either a cause or a consequence of telomere shortening.