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Are flunkers social outcasts? A multilevel study of grade retention effects on same-grade friendships

Authors
  • Demanet, Jannick
  • Van Houtte, Mieke
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2016
Source
Ghent University Institutional Archive
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown
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Abstract

We examine the association between grade retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Moreover, we investigate the effect of a school’s proportion of retained students on these friendships, and the moderating effect of this school characteristic on the relationship between retention and the number of same-grade friendships. Multilevel analyses on data from 11,759 students in 83 Flemish secondary schools show that secondary school retention is related to a lower number of friendships. Primary school retention is unrelated to friendship quantity in secondary education. Furthermore, students attending schools with a higher percentage of retained students have fewer same-grade friendships. The retention composition also moderates the effect of individual grade retention on the number of same-grade friendships. The implications are discussed.

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