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Flow-FISH as a Tool for Studying Bacteria, Fungi and Viruses

Authors
  • freen-van heeren, julian j.
Publication Date
Oct 11, 2021
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/biotech10040021
OAI: oai:mdpi.com:/2673-6284/10/4/21/
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Many techniques are currently in use to study microbes. These can be aimed at detecting, identifying, and characterizing bacterial, fungal, and viral species. One technique that is suitable for high-throughput analysis is flow cytometry-based fluorescence in situ hybridization, or Flow-FISH. This technique employs (fluorescently labeled) probes directed against DNA or (m)RNA, for instance targeting a gene or microorganism of interest and provides information on a single-cell level. Furthermore, by combining Flow-FISH with antibody-based protein detection, proteins of interest can be measured simultaneously with genetic material. Additionally, depending on the type of Flow-FISH assay, Flow-FISH can also be multiplexed, allowing for the simultaneous measurement of multiple gene targets and/or microorganisms. Together, this allows for, e.g., single-cell gene expression analysis or identification of (sub)strains in mixed cultures. Flow-FISH has been used in mammalian cells but has also been extensively employed to study diverse microbial species. Here, the use of Flow-FISH for studying microorganisms is reviewed. Specifically, the detection of (intracellular) pathogens, studying microorganism biology and disease pathogenesis, and identification of bacterial, fungal, and viral strains in mixed cultures is discussed, with a particular focus on the viruses EBV, HIV-1, and SARS-CoV-2.

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