The world is witnessing major environmental changes, which are a consequence of increasing impacts and pressure on the natural system. Hydrological processes at the catchment scale are sensitive to these changes, and the resulting effect is an increase in the frequency of extreme events such as flooding and droughts, which cause serious damages to human lives, to food production systems and to infrastructures. Losses incurred by these damages are sometimes large and beyond imagination, and represent a major challenge for economic expansion in developing nations. While these impacts are real in the Congo Basin, efforts to mitigate them or to enable capacity of people to minimize their costs are little. This is basically due to a lack of understanding of processes governing the dynamics of the extreme events, a lack of adequate data and information required at the appropriate scales, and insufficient infrastructures. This paper presents the current status of flood forecasting systems in the Congo Basin, including current knowledge of drivers and trends in flood events, available data and tools, as well as available infrastructures and technology necessary to establish flood monitoring systems and early warning mechanisms. A diagnostic analysis is carried out with the aim to identify gaps and propose areas for future actions of capacity development.