Although several radiographic predictors for pulmonary function in adolescent patients have been reported, those in adult patients remain unclear. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the associations between spinal deformity and pulmonary function in nonoperatively treated adult patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). Of 319 patients treated nonoperatively for AIS, 90 (average age, 40.0 ± 6.5 years) underwent both full-length standing radiographs and pulmonary function test. Standard two-dimensional (2-D) radiographic measurements were performed. Three-dimensional thoracic kyphosis (3-D TK) was calculated from 2-D standing radiograph data using a validated formula: 3-D TK (°) = 18.1 + 0.81 × (2-D TK) + 0.54 × (Cobb angle of thoracic curve). 3-D TK was defined as the sum of segmental kyphosis between T5 and T12, which eliminates the overestimation of TK in 2-D measurements due to rotational deformity. Bivariable correlation analysis, followed by a stepwise multiple linear regression analysis, was performed. The average Cobb angle of the thoracic curve at the time of survey was 49.4° ± 14.6° with flexibility of 37.5% ± 18.2%. Thoracic curve magnitude, flexibility, apical vertebral rotation and translation, and 3-D TK were significantly correlated with percent-predicted forced vital capacity (%FVC) and expiratory volume in 1 s (%FEV1.0). Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that curve flexibility and 3-D TK were significant, independent predictors of %FVC (R2 = 0.358) and %FEV1.0 (R2 = 0.335), curve flexibility having a greater impact (standardized coefficient > 0.45) than 3-D TK (<0.32). Our results indicate that nonoperatively treated patients with AIS should be recommended to maintain flexibility of the thoracic curve to prevent future pulmonary impairment. Moreover, 3-D TK is another independent predictor of pulmonary function, which suggests that segmental sagittal alignment is a component of deformity correction to focus on. Copyright © 2019. Published by Elsevier B.V.