Potentiation of odor by taste in rats was tested in a variety of situations. In three experiments, almond odor and saccharin taste were presented either as a single conditioned stimulus (CS) or as a compound CS and followed by either toxic lithium chloride or footshock. Extinction tests with the almond and saccharin components were then given. In single CS-toxin experiments, taste was more effective than odor, and after compound conditioning, the taste component potentiated the odor component. Conversely, in single CS-shock experiments, odor was more effective than taste, and after compound conditioning, no potentiation was observed. Rather, interference effects were observed. In Experiments 1 and 2, the addition of taste disrupted odor CS-shock conditioning, and in Experiment 3, odor interfered with taste CS-shock conditioning. Visceral feedback is apparently a necessary unconditioned stimulus for the potentiation of odor by taste. These data support the neural convergence and gating hypothesis of flavor aversion conditioning.