China (excluding Hong Kong, Macao and Taiwan, unless specified) is the greatest contributor to the total catch of global marine fisheries. As such, data about the degrees of exploitation and developmental dynamics of its fisheries are essential to evaluate and guide future sustainable seafood production and policy implementation and adjustments. In this study, we summarized the national official statistic data on domestic marine fisheries (including both marine capture fisheries and mariculture) from the earliest available year, 1950, to the latest year, 2014, using on the China Fishery Statistical Yearbooks. We also conducted analyses to understand the historical and current statuses of Chinese marine fisheries and their developmental trends. Domestic marine capture fisheries are declining and will continue to decline because of the current degradation and loss of coastal habitats, mainly due to coastal development and pollution and the over-exploitation of coastal natural resources. In contrast, mariculture has demonstrated promise as an approach to increase seafood production. However, given the wide latitudinal range of domestic seas in China, global climate change may impact China’s marine natural resources. We highlight that effective management measures and long-term monitoring are essential for the sustainability of domestic marine capture fisheries. Moreover, environmentally-friendly practices in mariculture should be enhanced and species introduction carefully monitored to achieve sustainable development.