Microsporida are known as opportunistic unicellular organisms and have recently been reclassified as fungi that have been frequently reported from patients with congenital and acquired immunity failure disorders, worldwide. However, use of immunosuppressive medications in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients significantly decreases overall immunity, and increases their susceptibility to opportunistic infections. Totally, 71 stool samples were collected from IBD patients consisted of 69 ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and two Crohn's disease (CD) patients. All patients had taken immunosuppressive and/or immunomodulator drugs for at least 3 weeks. DNA was extracted from all stool samples and Nested PCR was performed using genus-specific primers based on small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Fisher's Exact Test was applied to evaluate statistical association between microsporidia infection and sex, age and types of IBD. Mean of age ± s.d., women and men percentage of the attended patients were 36·17 ± 11·93, 60·6%, and 39·4%, respectively. A 440-bp fragment of SSU rRNA gene attributed to Enterocytozoon bieneusi was amplified from 12·7% of IBD patients. No Encephalitozoon DNA was detected in the samples. No microsporidia-positive sample was found in CD patients. Fisher's Exact Test showed that there was no statistically significant correlation between intestinal microsporidiosis and age, sex, and IBD types with P values: 0·389, 1·00, and 1·00, respectively. This study has shown IBD patients undergoing immunosuppressive/immunomodulators medications, which may be susceptible to intestinal microsporida infection. E. bieneusi is the commonest intestinal microsporidan reported from IBD patients.