Rationale: "Noninfectious" pulmonary complications are significant causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant. Early-onset viral reactivations or infections are common after transplant. Whether the first-onset viral infection causes noninfectious pulmonary complications is unknown. Objectives: To determine whether the first-onset viral infection within 100 days after transplant predisposes to development of noninfectious pulmonary complications. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of 738 allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant patients enrolled from 2005 to 2011. We also established a novel bone marrow transplantation mouse model to test whether herpesviral reactivation after transplant causes organ injury. Measurements and Main Results: First-onset viral infections with human herpesvirus 6 or Epstein-Barr virus within 100 days after transplant increase the risk of developing idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 5.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.61-18.96; P = 0.007; and aHR, 9.21; 95% CI, 2.63-32.18; P = 0.001, respectively). First infection with human cytomegalovirus increases risk of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (aHR, 2.88; 95% CI, 1.50-5.55; P = 0.002) and grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aHR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.06-2.39; P = 0.02). Murine roseolovirus, a homolog of human herpesvirus 6, can also be reactivated in the lung and other organs after bone marrow transplantation. Reactivation of murine roseolovirus induced an idiopathic pneumonia syndrome-like phenotype and aggravated acute graft-versus-host disease. Conclusions: First-onset herpesviral infection within 100 days after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant increases risk of pulmonary complications. Experimentally reactivating murine roseolovirus causes organ injury similar to phenotypes seen in human transplant recipients.