Waste sorting activities are source of occupational bioaerosol exposures that are associated with several health disorders. New analytical tools, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies, provide powerful methods to assess the microbial composition of bioaerosols. The objectives of the study were (i) to assess the feasibility and the repeatability of NGS-based biodiversity measurements and (ii) to study the microbial biodiversity using NGS in bioaerosols emitted in a waste sorting plant (WSP). Three stationary parallel samples were collected in a sorting cabin using closed-face cassettes equipped with polycarbonate membranes. Bacterial and fungal diversity was assessed by sequencing 16S and 18S rDNA genes using either Illumina sequencing or 454 pyrosequencing methods. At sampling point, airborne bacteria were dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria with prevailing genera assigned to unclassified Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus, Acinetobacter, Leuconostoc, Pseudomonas, and Lactobacillus. Airborne fungi were dominated by Ascomycota with prevailing genera assigned to Penicillium, Aspergillus, Rhizopus, Wallemia, and Hemicarpenteles. The NGS biodiversity measurements revealed a higher biodiversity bioaerosols that previously reported for WSP in studies carried out using culture methods followed by identification of microorganisms. These results provide the first survey about taxonomic biodiversity in bioaerosols from WSPs using high-throughput sequencing. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.