With the increased use of cold-formed lightweight steel framing (LSF), there is growing demand for the proper assessment of its performance in building fires. In partnership with the North American steel industry, the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is conducting an experimental and analytical study on the fire resistance of loadbearing cold-formed steel-framed wall and floor assemblies. As part of this collaboration, this literature survey summarizes the information available on the topics related to the fire resistance of loadbearing cold-formed steel-stud walls clad with gypsum board. The current practice of establishing their fire-resistance rating, based on full-scale furnace tests, is assessed. Previous experimental and analytical studies on the subject and on the thermal and mechanical properties of the constituent materials—steel, gypsum board, and insulation—at elevated temperatures are also discussed. Future research needs are identified in the context of recent performance-based fire safety engineering concepts.