Free-range chicken eggs and topsoil samples from private households in Southeast and South Central Coast of Vietnam were investigated to identify potential PCDD/F sources using Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) approach. The PMF-extracted egg congener patterns were transformed to soil patterns using bioaccumulation factors and then compared to extracted soil and known dioxin sources patterns described in the literature. Free-range chicken egg PCDD/F profiles allowed to more precisely identify and distinguish potential PCDD/F sources. Five main PCDD/F sources were identified: open burning, vehicle emissions, background atmospheric deposition, Agent Orange, and so-called OCDD dechlorination pattern. The latter is characteristic for natural formation or ultimate weathering under tropical conditions of any primary source with predominant OCDD. Agent Orange source contribution ranged from 48 to 96% in soils, from 9 to 94% in eggs in hotspots, and from 10 to 31% in soil and from 4 to 45% in eggs in sprayed areas, respectively. Contributions of other sources varied significantly between sites. © 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.