The fine structure of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum which was grown at the optimal temperature, 65 C, as well as at the temperature extremes for growth is described. The most distinguishing feature of this organism is the presence of intracytoplasmic membranes. The internal membrane system consists of triplet membranes which are stacked closely together, frequently appearing as concentric circles without separation by cytoplasm. Aside from this feature, M. thermoautotrophicum proliferates as irregularly curved rods at 65 C and has a fine structure similar to most other gram-positive bacteria. Both low (45 C) and high (75 C) growth temperatures induce structural modifications. These structural changes include rod to spheroidal morphological changes, cell wall abberations, distortion of division septa, misdivisions, and internal membrane deterioration.