The results of 200 women with primary breast cancer who had fine needle aspiration cytology prior to definitive surgery at the Peking Union Medical College Hospital were presented. Among them, aspiration cytology was positive and suspicious in 87% (174/200) and pseudonegative in 13% (26/200). Clinical factors relating to the success of these aspiration were evaluated. The most significant factor was which physician performed the aspiration. Size of the lesion and type of the cancer were also important influences on the aspiration. Experiences in aspiration cytology were introduced by author.