From 48 out of 143 scarlet fever patients in the age range of 3-15 years, Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated in the course of hospitalization or convalescence (isolation rate 33.6%). Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE) was produced by 19 (39.6%) of these isolates. The most frequent SE types detected were A (47.4%) and C (36.8%); type B was produced by 2 strains, type E by 1, while type D, or a combination of SE types, was not detected at all (by means of immunodiffusion in a micromodification). So far no significant correlation has been found between the clinical course of scarlet fever or accompanying complaints and presence of SE-positive S. aureus strains. The significance of these findings is discussed.