Women account for over 80 % of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) population. Some researchers have noted that a large percentage of women with FMS have had hysterectomies. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between FMS and hysterectomies, and to examine the impact of having a hysterectomy on health status and health care costs. A sample of 573 American women, who were members of a health maintenance organization with a confirmed diagnosis of FMS, reported whether they had a hysterectomy. Participants completed the Quality of Well-Being Scale and their annual health care costs were calculated based on their medical records. Almost half of the sample (48.3 %) reported having had a hysterectomy, with 90.7 % reporting having had the surgery before their FMS diagnosis. Those who had a hysterectomy had significantly lower general health status and incurred higher health care costs than the women with FMS who did not have a hysterectomy. The percentage of women with FMS who had a hysterectomy was considerably higher than that found in the general population. In this study, having a hysterectomy and a diagnosis of FMS was related to poorer health status and higher health care costs.