Four fibrolamellar liver carcinomas were surgically removed and were postoperatively examined. Three patients are alive roughly three years from surgery, and there are no signs of imminent recurrence, while the fourth case was diagnosed only two months back. The carcinomas had developed in non-cirrhotic livers which also produced negative responses to serological tests for hepatitis B. In flow cytometry, DNA indices were indicative of diploidy in two cases and aneuploidy in the other two. The highest DNA index value was recorded from the smallest tumour which could be assigned to the category of "minute HCC". No correlation was found to exist either between age, sex, and DNA index. Positive CEA reaction was immunohistochemically recorded from few tumour cells, whereas negative AFP responses were exhibited by all four tumours. Appearance of AAT in tumour cells was detected in three cases. High degree of differentiation, similarity between tumour and liver cells, and oncocytoid nature of cells were revealed by optical light and electron microscopy. This high degree of differentiation was additionally confirmed by two factors: glucose-6-phosphatase activity was preserved in all four tumours, adenosinetriphosphatase activity was histochemically detectable from certain points of the tumour cell membrane. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity, too, was very strongly pronounced in all tumour cells, which, however, cannot be interpreted as a sign of differentiation. Membrane-bordered "dense-core" granules were visible in few tumour cells in two cases. Intensive granular serotonin reactions were immunohistochemically recorded from the majority of tumour cells in the same cases. Our histochemical and ultrastructural parameters have produced clear-cut evidence to the hepatocyte nature of FLC cells. Yet, the presence of secretory granules and positive serotonin reaction might possibly support the assumption that the FLC originates from those pluripotent cells of the liver which may develop in two directions, depending on the individual case, to become either hepatocytes or neurosecretory cells.