Papillary fibroelastoma is a benign primitive cardiac tumour, which can be associated with serious embolic complications. We report on a 37-year-old woman admitted for a cerebrovascular accident. Transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography revealed a small and pedunculated mass attached to the anterior mitral leaflet. Because of the severity of its symptoms and its high embolic potential, the tumour was surgically excised and histologically diagnosed as a papillary fibroelastoma. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient was discharged at the third day. Papillary fibroelastoma must be surgically treated because of its high embolic potential and its severe prognosis.