Fiberoptic intubation (FOI) is an effective technique for establishing airway access in patients with both anticipated and unanticipated difficult airways. First described in the late 1960s, this approach can facilitate airway management in a variety of clinical scenarios given proper patient preparation and technique. This paper seeks to review the pertinent technology, clinical techniques, and indications for and complications of its use. The role of FOI in airway management algorithms is discussed. Evidence is presented comparing FOI to other techniques with regard to difficult airway management. In addition, we have reviewed the literature on training processes and skill development in FOI.