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Fiber, Fat, and Colorectal Cancer: New Insight into Modifiable Dietary Risk Factors

Authors
  • Ocvirk, Soeren1, 2
  • Wilson, Annette S.1
  • Appolonia, Corynn N.1
  • Thomas, Timothy K.3
  • O’Keefe, Stephen J. D.1
  • 1 University of Pittsburgh, W1112 Biomedical Science Tower, 200 Lothrop Street, Pittsburgh, PA, 15213, USA , Pittsburgh (United States)
  • 2 German Institute of Human Nutrition Potsdam-Rehbruecke, Nuthetal, Germany , Nuthetal (Germany)
  • 3 Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium, Anchorage, AK, USA , Anchorage (United States)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Current Gastroenterology Reports
Publisher
Springer US
Publication Date
Dec 02, 2019
Volume
21
Issue
11
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s11894-019-0725-2
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
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Abstract

Purpose of ReviewTo review recent data on the role and interactions of fiber and fat as dietary risk factors associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk in humans.Recent FindingsFiber intake shows convincing and linear dose-response negative correlation with CRC risk. Dietary fiber stimulates butyrogenic activity of the gut microbiota, providing high amounts of butyrate that shows extensive anti-neoplastic effects. A high-fat diet promotes CRC risk through stimulated bile acid metabolism, facilitating bile acid conversion by the gut microbiota to tumor-promoting deoxycholic acid. Comprehensive interactions of these microbial metabolites are likely to underlie mechanisms driving diet-dependent CRC risk in different populations, but require further experimental investigation.SummaryDietary fiber and fat shape the composition and metabolic function of the gut microbiota, resulting in altered amounts of butyrate and deoxycholic acid in the colon. Fiber supplementation and restriction of fat intake represent promising strategies to reduce CRC risk in healthy individuals.

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