This article includes the assertion by the deputy director and demographer of the China Information and Research Center that China must maintain and implement a strict population policy in order to feed its large population. China has 22% of the world's total population but only 7% of the world's total cultivated land. The population rate varies by province and region in China and ranges from replacement level fertility in Shanghai to high growth in remote and underdeveloped provinces. About 70 million people live under the poverty line or have an annual family income of under 500 yuan. The family planning programs should emphasize a service oriented approach. The increased power of women and improved educational status of women are also desired. Concern is recognized in government circles about the rapid aging of the population. Rural-urban migration has improved the economic climate in cities, but migration has also resulted in "some serious social problems." China has a low fertility level but rapid population growth. In the 1990s about 21 million babies were born, which is a net increase of about 14 million annually. Population growth is serious because of a strong population momentum from the previous baby boom of the 1960s. China has accomplished a great deal in a short period of time in reducing fertility under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions. Credit must be given to the Chinese government, its various departments, and public response. Present population is over 1.2 billion, which is higher than the total population of developed countries of the world.