In this study, the impact of fermentation of Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat) by Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis was investigated. The interaction between starter culture and buckwheat dough matrix was evaluated with respect to microbial count, final pH, organic acids, total phenolic content and antioxidant potential. An increase of one log cycle from 8.76 to 9.92 log CFU(Colony Forming Unit)/g was observed during fermentation. Lactic acid content increased up to 1350 μg/g within 24 h of fermentation. The most significant result of this study was an observed increase in the total phenolic content of the dough, from 2.73 to 7.64 mg GAE(Gallic Acid Equivalence)/g. Antioxidant potential of fermented buckwheat also showed an increased percentage of 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl scavenging activity from 44.32% to 88.98% and ferric reducing antioxidant power potential increased from 14.43 to 25.68 μM Fe(II)/g after 72 h of fermentation. We conclude that lactic acid fermentation of buckwheat dough has a potential to be a functional food, with enhanced antioxidant activity.