Deltamethrin-based campaigns to control Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have decreased in success as a result of the development of insecticide resistance. We compared the in vitro effects of the pyrethroid deltamethrin and two doses of the organophosphate fenitrothion, presented on different materials, on T. infestans from La Esperanza, Argentina. Laboratory tests demonstrated a decrease in susceptibility to deltamethrin in the field population [LD50 : 30.32 nanograms per insect (ng/i)] compared with the reference population (LD50 : 0.13 ng/i), giving a high resistance ratio of 233.42. By contrast, similar susceptibility to fenitrothion was assessed in both the field and reference populations (LD50 : 21.65 ng/i and 21.38 ng/i, respectively). The effectiveness of the formulated insecticides varied according to the surfaces to which they were applied. The application of fenitrothion formulations to glass or brick resulted in mortality of 90-100%. The application of fenitrothion formulations to wood or mud caused mortality in the range of 6.7-56.7%. Resistant insects presented low mortality when exposed to the deltamethrin formulation and high mortality when exposed to fenitrothion formulations. Moreover, the insecticides demonstrated residual activity only when applied to glass. The present work demonstrates that fenitrothion is an alternative to pyrethroids for the management of deltamethrin-resistant insects in La Esperanza. However, this effectiveness is not sustained over time.