This is the first report on successful treatment of spontaneous nonunion fracture of a dog by use of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2). A 4-year-old Pomeranian dog with a 2-year history of femoral nonunion fracture was treated with implantation of rhBMP-2. The dog had received surgical correction twice prior to the admission but radiography of the affected limb revealed a typical figure of nonunion fracture. Glossly, the fractured ends were sclerotic and the area between the ends was filled with fibrous tissue. After debridement the femoral shaft was fixed by an 8-hole plate. rhBMP-2 at a total dose of 256 micrograms was implanted with a synthetic carrier into the 8-mm defect formed by the debridement. Callus formation responding to rhBMP-2 was radiographically observed at 2 weeks after implantation and the defect reached radiographic union by 8 weeks after implantation. The plate was removed at 9 months after implantation. Any complications were not observed for 5 months after removal of the plate.