Recent research has indicated that exposure to residential vegetation (“greenness”) may be protective against cognitive decline and may support the integrity of the corresponding brain structures. However, not much is known about these effects, especially in less affluent countries and in middle-aged populations. In this study, we investigated the associations between greenness and neurocognitive function. We used a convenience sample of 112 middle-aged Bulgarians and two cognitive tests: the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s Disease Neuropsychological Battery (CERAD-NB) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). In addition, structural brain imaging data were available for 25 participants. Participants’ home address was used to link cognition scores to the normalised difference vegetation index (NDVI), a measure of overall neighbourhood vegetation level (radii from 100 to 1,000 m). Results indicated that higher NDVI was consistently associated with higher CERAD-NB and MoCA scores across radial buffers and adjustment scenarios. Lower waist circumference mediated the effect of NDVI on CERAD-NB. NDVI100-m was positively associated with average cortical thickness across both hemispheres, but these correlations turned marginally significant (P<0.1) after correction for false discovery rate due to multiple comparisons. In conclusion, living in a greener neighbourhood might be associated with better cognitive function in middle-aged Bulgarians, with lower central adiposity partially accounting for this effect. Tentative evidence suggests that greenness might also contribute to structural integrity in the brain regions regulating cognitive functions. Future research should build upon our findings and investigate larger and more representative population groups.