Many women find the idea of a once-a-month contraceptive pill an attractive concept. Mifepristone has been shown to be effective as a contraceptive if administered in the early luteal phase. We tested the contraceptive efficacy of 200 mg of mifepristone on day luteinizing hormone (LH) + 2 in a group of 32 women who used a fertility monitor to identify the LH surge. We also recruited a control group, comprising 20 women who were trying to conceive. In this group, 12 women conceived during a total of 50 control cycles (probability of pregnancy 0.25-0.32). Women in the treatment group contributed to a total of 178 cycles and there were two pregnancies (probability of pregnancy 0.01). An LH surge was not detected in 34 cycles (19.1%). In 20 cycles (11.2%) this was due to imperfect use while 14 were monitor method failures (7.9%). Treatment with mifepristone in the early luteal phase did not disrupt the cycle length but women reported slight vaginal bleeding in 15% of the cycles. The combination of a home-use fertility monitor with once-a-month administration of mifepristone (especially if mifepristone is administered at the early luteal phase) is an acceptable contraceptive option with minimal side effects. Unfortunately, it is difficult to envisage how an easier way of defining the correct timing, which required less compliance, could be devised.