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Direct load control of residential water heaters

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Abstract

In Norway there is a growing concern that electricity production and transmission may not meet the demand in peak-load situations. It is therefore important to evaluate the potential of different demand-side measures that may contribute to reduce peak load. This paper analyses data from an experiment where residential water heaters were automatically disconnected during peak periods of the day. A model of hourly electricity consumption is used to evaluate the effects on the load of the disconnections. The results indicate an average consumption reduction per household of approximately 0.5Â kWh/h during disconnection, and an additional average increase in consumption the following hour, due to the payback effect, that may reach up to 0.28Â kWh/h per household.

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