Abstract Mo–Si alloys containing up to 1 wt.% Si were fabricated by powder-metallurgical processing and their lattice parameters, elastic constants, densities, grain sizes, strengths, ductilities, and fracture toughness values were measured. The yield strength was insensitive to the grain size, i.e., a Hall–Petch relationship was not observed. Generally, Si additions caused pronounced solid solution strengthening. However, for small Si concentrations (≤0.1 wt.%) solid solution softening was observed at room temperature and below. With increasing Si concentration, the room temperature ductility and fracture toughness dropped precipitously. This is attributed to the increase in strength and a transition from transgranular to intergranular fracture.