Abstract Pilocarpine has been used to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in glaucoma patients for more than 100 years. Since the identification of five muscarinic receptor subtypes, there has been an interest in separating the IOP-lowering effects from the ocular side effects of pupil constriction and lens accommodation. However, all these actions seem to be mediated by the M 3 receptor. A novel muscarinic receptor agonist, AGN 199170, that has no activity on the M 3 subtype was compared to pilocarpine in a monkey glaucoma model. This compound lowered IOP suggesting that muscarinic agonists targeted at muscarinic receptors other than the M 3 subtype may be able to selectively lower IOP.