Abstract Rats were trained to choose between the side compartments of a 3-chambered shock-escape apparatus according to whether they were injected (i.p.) with 4.0 mg/kg d-amphetamine or 0.9% saline. The d-amphetamine drug state acquired all the properties of a discriminative stimulus by producing interoceptive cues. Doses of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine, 7.4–29.7 mg/kg mescaline, 4.0–8.0 mg/kg fenfluramine and 0.048 mg/kg LSD failed to produce an amphetamine-like cue. However, l-amphetamine, 8.0 mg/kg, produced responses shown to be statistically similar to the 4.0 mg/kg training dose of d-amphetamine.