Abstract In a neuroanatomical study of dyslexia, measurements were made of the superior surface of the temporal lobe (SSTL) on MRI scans in a sample of 17 dyslexics and 21 non-dyslexic subjects. Both anterior and posterior halves of the SSTL area showed significant leftward asymmetry in non-dyslexics, but showed symmetry in dyslexics. The total SSTL area showed greater leftward asymmetry in non-dyslexics than in dyslexics. The dyslexics also revealed a significant correlation ( r = 0.69, P = 0.005) between Woodcock-Johnson Passage Comprehension scores and posterior SSTL asymmetry, such that those with higher scores had more leftward asymmetry. This suggests that among dyslexics the direction of SSTL asymmetry may serve as a risk factor and/or a marker for the severity of reading comprehension problems.