Summary Intracellular transport and storage of retinoids were shown to be conducted by fatty acid-binding protein (FABP). When rat liver cytosol was gel filtrated, retinyl palmitate-binding activity was mainly eluted in the fraction with a Mr. of around 14,000, in which both FABP and cellular retinol-binding protein (CRBP) co-existed. From the binding analysis of purified FABP and CRBP to retinyl palmitate, FABP was found to have a relatively high affinity (Kd= 1.4 × 10 −6 M) to retinyl palmitate, while binding of retinyl palmitate to CRBP was scarecely detectable. By using anti-FABP serum, it was shown that FABP was distributed in organs relating to absorption and storage of retinoids, such as jejunum, ileum, and liver. In liver, the protein was localized in the parenchymal cells and with particularly high concentration in the perisinusoidal cells, probably fat-storing cells.