Abstract The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) (Brazelton, 1973, 1984) is a 27-item scale representing individual differences in the newborn infants' behavioral repertoire. The NBAS items are typically collapsed into six clusters (Lester, 1984). Although the NBAS has been examined using exploratory factor analysis methods, no confirmatory factor analysis study has been published in which the behavior structure of full-term, healthy infants is examined. In the current research, competing models assessing variations of the Lester behavior clusters were performed using confirmatory factor analysis. Models comparing six independent factors, six correlated factors, and models estimating a general adaptiveness factor plus six factors were assessed. Examination of the results suggests continued investigations of neonatal behaviors are needed.