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Reducing the mapping between perception and action facilitates imitation

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  • This Study Investigated Two Hypotheses Regarding The Mapping Of Perception To Action During Imitatio
  • The First Hypothesis Predicted That As Children’S Cognitive Capacities Increase The Tendency To Ma
  • This Hypothesis Was Tested By Comparing The Performances Of 168 4- To 7-Year-Olds In A Gestural Imit
  • Wohlschläger
  • And Gattis
  • The Second Hypothesis Predicted That Reducing The Mapping Between Perception And Action Should Reduc
  • This Hypothesis Was Tested By Creating A Condition In Which Perception And Action Overlapped By Shar
  • In Three Experimental Conditions
  • An Adult Modelled Four Gestures
  • Directed At Either: 1) One Of Two Sets Of Round Stickers (Proprietary Objects)
  • 2) The Same Location On The Table
  • Without Any Sticker (No Objects)
  • Or 3) One Set Of Round Stickers
  • Which Were Shared With The Child (Shared Objects)
  • The Results Confirmed Both Hypotheses
  • Four- And Five-Year-Olds Imitated Less Accurately When Imitation Involved Mapping Of Both Objects An
  • Seven-Year-Olds Imitated Accurately In All Three Conditions
  • Demonstrating That Increased Cognitive Capacity Allowed Them To Map Multiple Goals From Perception T
  • Most Importantly
  • Reducing The Mapping Between Perception And Action In The Shared Objects Condition Facilitated Imita
  • Specifically For The Transitional Group
  • 6-Year-Olds
  • We Conclude That Mapping Between Perception And Action Is Not Direct
  • But Resembles Mapping Relations In Analogical Reasoning: Cognitive Processes Mediate Mapping From Pe
  • Biology


Chapter 2 Androgen Action During Prostate Carcinogenesis Diping Wang and Donald J. Tindall Abstract Androgens are critical for normal prostate development and function, as well as prostate cancer initiation and progression. Androgens function mainly by regulating target gene expression through the androgen receptor (AR). Many studies have shown that androgen-AR signaling exerts actions on key events during prostate carcinogenesis. In this review, androgen action in distinct aspects of prostate carcinogenesis, including (i) cell proliferation, (ii) cell apoptosis, and (iii) prostate cancer metastasis will be discussed. Key words: Androgen receptor, prostate cancer, androgen metabolism, androgen signaling, castration-resistant prostate cancer. 1. Androgen Signaling Androgens are the male sex hormones, which control the differ- entiation and maturation of male reproductive organs, including the prostate gland. Testosterone is the principal androgen in cir- culation and is synthesized by Leydig cells in the testes, under the regulation of luteinizing hormone (LH), which is further regulated by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Adrenal glands also synthesize a small amount of androgens, such as dehy- droepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione (4-dione) (1). Testosterone enters prostate cells by passive diffusion, where it is converted enzymatically by 5-α reductases to the more potent androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (2). Binding of androgens to the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-modulated transcrip- tion factor, induces a conformational change in the AR, causing release of heat shock proteins and translocation of the AR to the F. Saatcioglu (ed.), Androgen Action, Methods in Molecular Biology 776, DOI 10.1007/978-1-61779-243-4_2, © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011 25 26 Wang and Tindall nucleus, where it transcriptionally regulates the expression of tar- get genes (3). In addition to the classic genomic effects of sex steroids, accu- mulating

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