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Stereochemical evaluation of the relative activities of the cinchona alkaloids against Plasmodium falciparum.

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  • Research Article
  • Chemistry


Quinine and quinidine were over 100 times more active than 9-epiquinine and 9-epiquinidine against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum and over 10 times more active against chloroquine-resistant P. falciparum. Since the only structural difference between quinine, quinidine, 9-epiquinine, and 9-epiquinidine is their three-dimensional configuration, the three-dimensional structures of these four alkaloids were examined in order to explain the large difference in relative activities between the 9-epi alkaloids and quinine and quinidine. The crystal structure of 9-epiquinidine hydrochloride monohydrate was determined by X-ray diffraction and was compared with the crystal structures of quinine, quinidine sulfate dihydrate, and 9-epiquinine hydrochloride dihydrate. The crystallographic parameters for 9-epiquinidine hydrochloride monohydrate were as follows: chemical formula, C20H25N2O2+.Cl-.H2O; M(r), 378.9; symmetry of unit cell, orthorhombic; space group, P2(1)2(1)2(1); parameters of unit cell, a was 7.042 +/- 0.001 A (1 A = 0.1 nm), b was 9.082 +/- 0.001 A, c was 31.007 +/- 0.005 A; the volume of unit cell was 1,983.1 +/- 0.6 A3; number of molecules per unit cell was 4; the calculated density was 1.27 g cm-3; the source of radiation was Cu K alpha (lambda = 1.54178 A); mu (absorption coefficient) was 18.82 cm-1; F(000) (sum of atomic scattering factors at zero scattering angle) was 808; room temperature was used; final R (residual index) was 5.72% for 1,501 reflections with magnitude of F(o) greater than 3 sigma (F). The intramolecular distance from N-1 to O-12 in 9-epiquinidine and 9-epiquinine, although shorter than the corresponding distance in quinine and quinidine, was similar to those of other active amino alcohol antimalarial agents. In all four alkaloids, both the hydroxyl and amine groups formed intermolecular hydrogen bonds, showing the potential for forming hydrogen bonds with cellular constituents. However, the positioning of the N+-1--H-N1 and O-12--H-O12 groups relative to each other was quite different in the 9-epi alkaloids versus quinidine. This difference in positioning may determine the relative strengths, of the formation of hydrogen bonds with cellular constituents important to antimalarial activity and, therefore, may determine the relative strength of antimalarial activity.

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