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Accuracy and Repeatability of Three Apex Locators in Locating Root Canal Perforations: AnEx VivoStudy

Journal of Endodontics
DOI: 10.1016/j.joen.2014.02.004
  • Technology


Abstract Introduction This study was an ex vivo evaluation of the accuracy and repeatability of 3 electronic apex locators (EALs) in locating simulated root canal perforations. Methods Thirty-five human teeth were used. Perforations were placed 5 mm from the apex of each specimen. A #15 K-file was attached to a micrometer, and the specimens were fixed in a mounting model. The EALs were connected to the files, and electronic measurements of the simulated perforations were obtained. This procedure was repeated, the files were cemented in place, and x-rays were obtained to evaluate the distances between the measurement files and the simulated perforations. The obtained results were compared with the corresponding control lengths. Three investigators evaluated the distance of the file position in relation to the perforation for each specimen. The 3 investigators reached consensus regarding these measurements. Results Statistical analyses of the results revealed that the EAL reliabilities in the exact detections of the root canal perforations were 97.1% for the Mini Apex Locator, 100% for the Root SW, and 91.4% for the Root ZX II. Analysis of variance revealed that the accuracies of the 3 devices were not different (P > .05). The results also indicated high levels of repeatability for each of the 3 EALs (intraclass correlation coefficients: 0998, 0.999, and 0.999 for the Mini Apex Locator, Root SW, and Root ZX II, respectively). Conclusions It was concluded that each of these 3 EALs provided excellent ex vivo accuracy in locating root perforations and that all tested devices possess excellent ex vivo repeatability.

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