Metabolism of contraceptive compounds may be influenced by various drugs. Of clinical importance is induction by barbiturates, by diphenylhydantoin, and especially by rifampicin, of enzymes that are responsible for degradation of estrogens. The major target is the hepatic microsomal estrogen-2-hydroxylase (cytochrome P450 3A4). Another type of interaction of drugs with disposition and effectiveness of estrogens is impairment of their enterohepatic circulation. This may be due to absorption of biliary estrogen conjugates (e.g., by cholestyramine) or to insufficient cleavage of the conjugate by intestinal bacteria, the latter being observed after administration of antibiotics (e.g., ampicillin, neomycin).