Endoscopic sclerotherapy and banding ligation are the two preferred methods to treat oesophageal variceal bleeding. There are many reports dealing with such treatment in cirrhotic patients but we do not know how good they are to treat varices secondary to other forms of portal hypertension. Schistosomiais mansoni is the main cause of portal hypertension and oesophageal varices in Brazil. We performed a prospective randomised study to compare: 1) the efficacy of both treatments in eradicating oesophageal varices, and 2) complications secondary to both treatments. Forty patients were divided in two Groups. Both sclerotherapy and banding ligation were performed until variceal eradication. There were no severe complications. Variceal eradication was faster obtained with banding ligation than sclerotherapy although there was no statistical difference (mean number of sessions 3.05 vs 3.72, p=0.053). Benign complications were equally frequent in both Groups, although additional sedation was more common in the sclerotherapy Group. We concluded that both treatments are equally effective in the eradication of oesophageal varices, although banding ligation is better tolerated by the patient and probably faster.