Abstract Anthrenocerus australis Hope adults completed a quiescent phase at a mean age of 3.3 days and first mated at a mean age of 4.9 days. Newly mated adults were either starved or fed water, sugar solution, pollen or both pollen and sugar solution to assess effect of diet on longevity and fecundity. Pollen had no effect. Males given water lived longer than those starved or fed pollen. Adults fed sugar solution, with or without pollen, lived longer than those on the other diets. Starved females laid an average of 13 eggs with the majority being laid in the first week after mating and none after 2 weeks. Females supplied water had a mean fecundity of 22 eggs. Those fed sugar solution had a mean fecundity of 28 eggs with a high proportion of the total eggs being laid in the 3rd and subsequent weeks after mating. Multiple mating was observed to occur more frequently in pairs fed sugar than those without sugar. The internal reproductive morphology of both sexes is described and reproductive maturation related to the quiescent period and age at first mating.