Abstract Objectives. To evaluate and compare the efficacy of caudal and local nerve blocks in preventing pain following outpatient pediatric urologic surgery. Methods. Seventy-seven boys undergoing outpatient urologic surgery were randomized into one of three groups: general anesthesia alone, general anesthesia and caudal nerve block, or general anesthesia and local nerve block. Pain scores, frequency of medication, and total dosage of medication were recorded in the immediate postoperative period. Long-term pain and discomfort were measured using â 24-hour and 1-week questionnaire. Results. The caudal and local groups had lower pain scores and significantly lower medication requirements than the control group in the short-term postoperative period. The caudal group had lower pain scores than the local group in all categories; however, the only significant difference was at 24 hours postoperatively. At 1 week postoperatively, the only difference among the three groups was a lower pain score in the caudal group compared with the control group. Conclusions. This study demonstrates that for outpatient pediatric urologic procedures,both caudal and local nerve blocks significantly reduce pain and medication given in the immediate postoperative period and indicates that caudal block may decrease pain for up to 1 week following surgery.