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Syphilis Infection during Pregnancy: Fetal Risks and Clinical Management

Authors
Journal
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
1064-7449
Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Publication Date
Volume
2012
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1155/2012/430585
Keywords
  • Review Article
Disciplines
  • Medicine

Abstract

Congenital syphilis is still a cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Untreated maternal infection leads to adverse pregnancy outcomes, including early fetal loss, stillbirth, prematurity, low birth weight, neonatal and infant death, and congenital disease among newborns. Clinical manifestations of congenital syphilis are influenced by gestational age, stage of maternal syphilis, maternal treatment, and immunological response of the fetus. It has been traditionally classified in early congenital syphilis and late congenital syphilis. Diagnosis of maternal infection is based on clinical findings, serological tests, and direct identification of treponemes in clinical specimens. Adequate treatment of maternal infection is effective for preventing maternal transmission to the fetus and for treating fetal infection. Prenatal diagnosis of congenital syphilis includes noninvasive and invasive diagnosis. Serological screening during pregnancy and during preconception period should be performed to reduce the incidence of congenital syphilis.

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