In the agroecosystem, titanium dioxide nanoparticles are used in fertilisers, pesticides, remediation and bio-sensors. These applications lead to a pervasive and inevitable distribution of TiO2 NPs in the agroecosystem. It is very important to understand the behaviour of TiO2 NPs in the soil and to assess their impact on the agroecosystem. This review aims to provide an overview of the fate and behaviour of TiO2 NPs in the soil and their impact on staple food crops. The first part of this review deals with the application, and release of TiO2 NPs followed by their fate and behaviour of TiO2 NPs in the soil. Furthermore, the dual (beneficial and toxic) impact of TiO2 NPs on staple food crops such as wheat, rice and maize has been discussed. We also address the mechanism of impact of TiO2 NPs. The second part deals with the beneficial impact of TiO2 NPs followed by their critical assessment. The final section of the review deals with the existing knowledge gaps and future research directions. This review is to deliver information on the safer application of nanoparticles in agriculture.