We report a pedigree with severe X-linked neuropathy that occurs in male infants and results in death, typically by 2 years of age. The proband of our report was weak with preserved mentation. He underwent extensive evaluation, which revealed abnormal nerve conduction studies, neurogenic changes on muscle biopsy, a decreased number of large myelinated fibers and rare onion bulb formations on nerve biopsy, negative gene testing for spinal muscular atrophy, CMT1a, and CMTX1 and a normal brain magnetic resonance image. The proband's mother, an obligate carrier, had normal nerve conduction studies. Male infants with a spinal muscular atrophy phenotype but normal genetic studies should be evaluated for this fatal X-linked neuropathy.