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Fast fallback watermark detection using perceptual hashes

  • Mareen, Hannes
  • Van Kets, Niels
  • Lambert, Peter
  • Van Wallendael, Glenn
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2021
DOI: 10.3390/electronics10101155
Ghent University Institutional Archive
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Forensic watermarking is often used to enable the tracing of digital pirates that leak copyright-protected videos. However, existing watermarking methods have a limited robustness and may be vulnerable to targeted attacks. Our previous work proposed a fallback detection method that uses secondary watermarks rather than the primary watermarks embedded by existing methods. However, the previously proposed fallback method is slow and requires access to all watermarked videos. This paper proposes to make the fallback watermark detection method faster using perceptual hashes instead of uncompressed secondary watermark signals. These perceptual hashes can be calculated prior to detection, such that the actual detection process is sped up with a factor of approximately 26,000 to 92,000. In this way, the proposed method tackles the main criticism about practical usability of the slow fallback method. The fast detection comes at the cost of a modest decrease in robustness, although the fast fallback detection method can still outperform the existing primary watermark method. In conclusion, the proposed method enables fast and more robust detection of watermarks that were embedded by existing watermarking methods.

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