A series of promoter probe vectors for use in Gram-negative bacteria has been made in two broad-host-range vectors, pOT (pBBR replicon) and pJP2 (incP replicon). Reporter fusions can be made to gfpUV, gfpmut3.1, unstable gfpmut3.1 variants (LAA, LVA, AAV and ASV), gfp+, dsRed2, dsRedT.3, dsRedT.4, mRFP1, gusA or lacZ. The two vector families, pOT and pJP2, are compatible with one another and share the same polylinker for facile interchange of promoter regions. Vectors based on pJP2 have the advantage of being ultra-stable in the environment due to the presence of the parABCDE genes. As a confirmation of their usefulness, the dicarboxylic acid transport system promoter (dctA(p)) was cloned into a pOT (pRU1097)- and a pJP2 (pRU1156)-based vector and shown to be expressed by Rhizobium leguminosarum in infection threads of vetch. This indicates the presence of dicarboxylates at the earliest stages of nodule formation.