This report presents findings from a family planning (FP) survey of the population in 2 counties in North Anhui province and 2 counties in South Jiangsu province, China. FP views differed between the older and younger generation. About 66% viewed FP as positive. One women noted the increase in women's status. Young women and men preferred the husband's role as breadwinner and wife's role in the home. Preference for a son as a first child was expressed by 13% of men and women in South Jiangsu and 25-30% in North Anhui. Respondents from North Anhui indicated that sons were valuable for old age support and as persons to carry on the family name. Some mothers reported pressure from mothers-in-law to bear a son. Over 33% in South Jiangsu desired a stronger FP role for men, expressed in their acceptance of vasectomy. Over 50% wanted men to use condoms. In North Anhui, 60% wanted more men to undergo vasectomy; 52% wanted men to use condoms. 97% in South Jiangsu and 91% in North Anhui used contraception. Nearly 82% of contraceptive users in South Jiangsu and 31% in North Anhui used the IUD. 29% of husbands in North Anhui and under 1% in South Jiangsu had obtained a vasectomy. Nearly 20% of women in South Jiangsu and 9% in North Anhui had had a pregnancy due to contraceptive failure. Fertility was 1.3 children/woman in South Jiangsu and 1.8 in North Anhui. After focus groups, researchers recommended improvements in quality of care and services to adolescents and youth, wider choices of methods, and promotion of the value of daughters.