Type A insulin resistance, associated with acanthosis nigricans and menstrual irregularity, has been ascribed to a decreased concentration of insulin receptors. We now report four affected females from one family, a mother and three daughters (including identical twins) who appear to have the type A syndrome. Two of the kindred had no apparent ovarian dysfunction, while the other two had hyperprolactinemia without other findings of polycystic ovary disease, suggesting a genetic disease with variable penetrance. All had normal erythrocyte and monocyte insulin binding. Insulin dose-response studies to assess glucose metabolism and insulin sensitivity were performed in the affected twins. The dose response to insulin was shifted to the right with a decrease in maximal response. These results are consistent with a postbinding defect in insulin action in these patients.