Level of prematurity is an objective criterion for determining the health welfare of the population. Several family background factors of the mother increases the risk of preterm birth child - family status, unwanted pregnancy, etc. Pregnancy among unmarried women and unwanted pregnancy are associated with a higher risk of giving premature baby. Aim of this study is a survey and analysis of factors of family background of the mother (family status and unplanned pregnancy) and their influence on the birth of a premature baby. The survey found nearly three times higher risk OR = 2,83 95 % CI (1,7-4,7) for the birth of a premature baby among unmarried mothers compared to married women, and twice as high proportion of unplanned pregnancy mothers of preterm infants - 20.7% compared to terminfants-10.4%.